Processor: characteristics, definition and types. Utility

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Catherine Le Nevez

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We currently use our computer to carry out any activity necessary for our daily life. Essentially many people know how to use a computer. However, they don't really know anything about the internal components it has, which bring our devices to life. It is important to know this information in order to be able to recognize any part of it, which is why it is worth asking: what is a processor and what is it used for and what types exist, characteristics and their function ?

All computers have a processor, which can vary by device and therefore it is essential that you know which processor your PC has. We will then provide you with all the necessary information.

What features do the processors have?

The function of the processor is that of a programmable device, which shrinks to the size of the computer. By offering various services, such as the control of the flow of information from the PC , checking RAM memory and developing basic operations. By itself it executes instructions stored in binary numbers, which are executed according to the computer's clock cycle.

It is very common for people today to use up to two processors, the one on the motherboard and the one on the video card. When combined, it produces an excellent performance for the team. The phases in which the processor works are read the instructions from memory , find the data you need, do the exact operation, and go to the next statement.

Among its characteristics it appears as a small chip, made up of registers and an arithmetic unit; They also consist of a core that is the one that achieves the best speed and fluidity. It has the cache memory which is the one that promotes the performance of the applications that are in the device, it allows the acceleration of the RAM memory and that of the hard disk.

The faster the processor, the faster the instructions. So you need to get one with better speed. When a processor has due core it's called double, but if it has four it's called Quadcore.

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Clock frequency

It is what indicates all that frequency where the transistors that integrate them switch electrically ; they open or close the flow of electric current. By itself it can be indicated that any electrical switching that occurs within a second within a transistor is taken as a sample. In other words, clock rate is the rate in cycles per second that a computer can perform basic operations, which is why having different chips on the motherboard will cause different clock rates.

Its standard measure of frequency is hertz (Hz), uses repetitions of the same event over a period of time (itself a second), so that would be its frequency at which it repeats again. In this way one hertz is based on the repetition of a cycle in one second; while two hertz are the repetition of the same cycle in one second.

Energy consumption

It could be said that the processor is the second component that consumes the most power in the computer. This varies depending on which model you have. Mainly in desktop computers we can find an Intel Core i3 that consumes about 51 watts, other processors Cores like i7-E and i9 they can consume between 140 and 150 watts.

Number of cores

Inside each processor are the cores, which are a unit responsible for reading instructions and correctly executing the certain actions . Basically, everything we do on our computer is received and processed by the processor and its cores; in particular these groups are in charge of covering and carrying out four types of activities such as: Research, execution, decoding and rewriting. Since each core corresponds to a separate central processing unit, which shows that more cores the processor has, they will allow us to perform multiple simultaneous tasks on the computer.

Processor socket

And the main board of computers, they usually change format for each generation of processors, to adapt each time to new chip designs. The socket is the one that is soldered to the motherboard that contains the electrical connection with the printed circuits, for them the processor is positioned on some guide points so that each pin is aligned with the respective point on the socket.

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What types of processors are there?

There are many types of processors in the market, which they differ in their brand and their cores , in themselves meet all customer needs. Since the processor is one of the most necessary parts, it is important to know the types and which of these are the most suitable for your tastes and needs.

The processor is considered the brain, since it is the one that allows you to perform all the actions of the operating system. It can be said that this translates all the commands the user uses. Therefore converts them into machine language and assigns commands to computer components.

It also checks the hardware and software, also known as the CPU. Since it is the brain, the faster your processor, the faster the executed orders are given to the computer; its physical appearance it is that of a silicon chip.

It must be said that this essential component for devices has evolved more and more, being necessary for computers to run faster and more efficiently. It is considered one of the most expensive components but also the most important.

Atom-type processors

The processor consists of the following components, core, cache, memory controller, graphics card, among others. On the other hand, the types that exist are, the Atom processor , has low power consumption and was created for netbooks and other specialized networking computers.

Atom corresponds to the line focused on the microprocessor . Which have been developed for different devices, especially all those mobile devices that use the Internet.

These are used on computers where the performance expressed by the hardware turn out to be more important, i.e. in the life of its battery or in the consumption of external energy.

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These are the Intel processors that have a very low cost, perform all basic functions that other processors can perform. However, it should be remembered that it has lower performance, as these have less cache memory.

They are mainly used and recommended for use with family computers, being perfect for computers that are communicating on a local network. I Celeron , are the ones that are mainly used in desktop PCs and web browsing.


There is also the Pentium , these are special for desktop computers, as they have dual core and core processor. It is used to carry out larger activities (companies or banks) and has more than one core. Generally the processors are in the socket, on the motherboard.

This is one of the processors best known by users , patented by various companies, based on an efficient and good quality processor. These have gone through several variations to offer the best to their customers, as they are used in high-end computers.

Main processors

The brand Intel Core matches all those special commercial CPUs for high performance computers. These have more than two cores because they are used for devices that require more speed.

How modern CPUs or processors work

The speed of the processors it is measured in megahertz or gigahertz and the speed of the internal clock that determines the data processing speed is measured in gigahertz.

The processor has interconnected internal blocks, known as the processor architecture, none have the same architecture, so the speed is never the same.

Desktop computers have a processor developed by Intel or AMD, on the other hand, they can be used also CPUs made by companies like ARM and Apple.

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